Article 24 of the 1992 Constitution of Uzbekistan (as amended) guarantees the right to life:
The right to exist is the inalienable right of every human being. Attempts on anyone's life shall be regarded as the gravest crime.
Article 26 prohibits "torture, violence or any other cruel or humiliating treatment".
Article 33 governs the right of peaceful assembly:
All citizens shall have the right to engage in public life by holding rallies, meetings and demonstrations in accordance with the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The bodies of authority shall have the right to suspend or ban such undertakings exclusively on the grounds of security.
Article 100 makes local authorities responsible for ensuring the observance of laws, maintaining law and order, and ensuring security of citizens. The Constitution does not directly regulate the actions of law enforcement agencies.
|1966 Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)||State Party|
|ICCPR Optional Protocol 1||State Party|
|1984 Convention against Torture (CAT)||State Party|
|Competence of CAT Committee to receive individual complaints||No|
|CAT Optional Protocol 1||Not party|
|1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court||Signatory|
There is no regional human rights treaty to which Central Asian nations can become party.
Police Use of Force
Law enforcement in Uzbekistan is carried out by national police under the Ministry of the Interior. In 2017, the President approved a law governing the police: "On law enforcement agencies". In September 2018, it was reported that Uzbekistan was seeking to learn from China when reforming its police force.
Uzbekistan has stated that its Internal Affairs Agencies Act clearly stipulates the conditions under which physical force, special devices, and firearms may be used. More extensive explanations are said to be provided in internal official documents. These have not been made public. The 2019 Arms Act stipulates that:
Service weapons should exclude firing in bursts, have a capacity of the magazine (drum) no more than ten rounds, a caliber no more than twenty-five millimeters for smooth-bore and nine millimeters for short-barreled weapons with a muzzle-powered barrel up to 350 joules.
There is no civilian independent police oversight body in Uzbekistan.
Views and Concluding Observations of United Nations Treaty Bodies
In its 2020 Concluding Observations on Uzbekistan, the Human Rights Committee regretted the lack of clear information on the compliance of the Firearms Act of 2019 with the Covenant and the Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials. It called on the authorities to ensure that its regulations governing the use of firearms by law enforcement and security forces are fully compliant with the provisions of the Covenant and the Basic Principles.
In its 2015 Concluding Observations on Uzbekistan, the Human Rights Committee stated that it remained concerned
about the lack of a full, independent and effective investigation into the mass killings, including of women and children, by military and security services during the Andijan events in May 2005, and regrets the State party’s assertion that the matter has been closed and would not be revisited, citing visits by two international officials without effective investigative powers.
It also regretted "the lack of clear information on the revision of the regulations governing the use of firearms by law enforcement and security forces".
In its 2013 Concluding Observations on Uzbekistan, the Committee against Torture stated that it was concerned
at the reports it has received that the authorities have perpetrated or acquiesced in, threatened to perpetrate and threatened to acquiesce in acts by other prisoners of sexual violence against individuals deprived of their liberty.
There is no regional human rights court with jurisdiction over police use of force in Uzbekistan.